Mohammad Pahlavi Coronation
According to Time magazine, 28 Nov, 1977 (Greetings for The Shah - TIME
The Shah of Iran represented 'oil price hawkishness.'"The Shah... helped spearhead the 1973-74 quadrupling of OPEC prices."
In 1973, the Shah of Iran, whose nation was the world's second-largest exporter of oil, told the New York Times:"Of course (the world price of oil) is going to rise. Certainly! And how...; You (Western nations) increased the price of wheat you sell us by 300%, and the same for sugar and cement...; You buy our crude oil and sell it back to us, refined as petrochemicals, at a hundred times the price you've paid to us...; It's only fair that, from now on, you should pay more for oil. Let's say ten times more."
The Shah met President Carter in Washington in November 1977.
(Jimmy Carter was US President from 1977 to 1981. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was Shah from 1941-79. The first major demonstration against the Shah came in 1978.)
"Carter argued forcefully that an increase in oil prices would kick off a new round of inflation that would damage both oil consumers and producers.
"The President's well-rehearsed presentation impressed the Shah, who agreed to go to Caracas committed to an oil-price freeze, a view also supported by Saudi Arabia.
"Said the Shah, in polished if patronizing Americanese: 'We decided to give you a break.' (Greetings for The Shah - TIME
The Shah had enemies.
When interviewed on CBS 60 Minutes by reporter, Mike Wallace, the Shah criticized US Jews for their control over US media and finance.
According to 'A Century Of War : Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order, by William Engdahl, a German historian:
1. In 1978, "negotiations were under way between the Shah's government and British Petroleum for renewal of the 25-year old extraction agreement.
"By October 1978, the talks had collapsed over a British 'offer' which demanded exclusive rights to Iran's future oil output, while refusing to guarantee purchase of the oil.
"With their dependence on British-controlled export apparently at an end, Iran appeared on the verge of independence in its oil sales policy for the first time since 1953, with eager prospective buyers in Germany, France, Japan and elsewhere...
The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977.
2. "In November 1978, President Carter named the Bilderberg group's George Ball, another member of the Trilateral Commission, to head a special White House Iran task force under the National Security Council's Brzezinski.
"Ball recommended that Washington drop support for the Shah of Iran and support the fundamentalistic Islamic opposition of Ayatollah Khomeini. Robert Bowie from the CIA was one of the lead 'case officers' in the new CIA-led coup against the man their covert actions had placed into power 25 years earlier.
"Their scheme was based on a detailed study of the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism, as presented by British Islamic expert, Dr. Bernard Lewis, then on assignment at Princeton University in the United States.
"Lewis's scheme, which was unveiled at the May 1979 Bilderberg meeting in Austria, endorsed the radical Muslim Brotherhood movement behind Khomeini, in order to promote balkanization of the entire Muslim Near East along tribal and religious lines.
"Lewis argued that the West should encourage autonomous groups such as the Kurds, Armenians, Lebanese Maronites, Ethiopian Copts, Azerbaijani Turks, and so forth. The chaos would spread in what he termed an 'Arc of Crisis,' which would spill over into Muslim regions of the Soviet Union.
"The coup against the Shah, like that against Mossadegh in 1953, was run by British and American intelligence..."
3. "Indications are that the actual planners of the Iranian Khomeini coup in London and within the senior ranks of the U.S. liberal establishment decided to keep President Carter largely ignorant of the policy and its ultimate objectives. The ensuing energy crisis in the United States was a major factor in bringing about Carter's defeat a year later."
4. "London was blackmailing and putting enormous economic pressure on the Shah's regime by refusing to buy Iranian oil production, taking only 3 million or so barrels daily of an agreed minimum of 5 million barrels per day.
"This imposed dramatic revenue pressures on Iran, which provided the context in which religious discontent against the Shah could be fanned by trained agitators deployed by British and U.S. intelligence. In addition, strikes among oil workers at this critical juncture crippled Iranian oil production.
"As Iran's domestic economic troubles grew, American 'security' advisers to the Shah's Savak secret police implemented a policy of ever more brutal repression, in a manner calculated to maximize popular antipathy to the Shah. At the same time, the Carter administration cynically began protesting abuses of 'human rights' under the Shah.
"British Petroleum reportedly began to organize capital flight out of Iran, through its strong influence in Iran's financial and banking community.
"The British Broadcasting Corporation's Persian-language broadcasts, with dozens of Persian-speaking BBC 'correspondents' sent into even the smallest village, drummed up hysteria against the Shah.
"The BBC gave Ayatollah Khomeini a full propaganda platform inside Iran during this time."
According to the Shah, in his memoir Answer to History, General Robert Huyser, a top NATO official, came to Iran, unannounced, with the primary mission of paralyzing the Iranian the army.
Allegedly, according to some supporters of the Shah, the leaders of US, UK, France, and Germany, in a summit held in Guadeloupe in 1979, came to an agreement with the US to remove the Shah. (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
On 19 January 1980, the International Herald Tribune reported that the Shah had said, two years before he was overthrown, that he had heard from two different sources connected with oil companies that the regime in Iran would change.
‘We believe that there was a plan to ensure less oil was offered to the world markets in order to bring about a price,’ said the Shah. ‘One country was to be chosen for the sacrifice... It seems that the country chosen to drop its oil production was mine.’ (webgardian: Shah:Oil Companies Helped to Oust Him)
Reportedly, the CIA and MI6 toppled the Shah because he had become too much of a nationalist, like Nasser, and was not following instructions on oil.
The CIA did not want left-wing democrats taking over from the Shah as they might not be easy to control. So, reportedly, the CIA allowed the Ayatollahs to take over.
Radio Free Iran claimed that while at Qom, the Ayatollah Khomeini received a "monthly stipend from the British, and he is in constant contact with his masters, the British."The British, Muslim Terrorism and September 11
The Shah's nationalist policies worried the CIA and MI6. The Shah signed petroleum agreements with ENI, the Italian oil company. In 1963 the Shah pushed forward popular reforms known as the White Revolution. Opium production was ended. There was a nuclear programme. The Shah seemed like a nationalist Nasser and the Anglo-Americans wanted him out.The role of the Moslem Brotherhood and the Ayatollahs
The following is taken from http://www.redmoonrising.com/Ikhwan/BritIslam.htm(Sources used in the article: The Biography of Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, jebhemelli.org
Killing Hope - U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II, William Blum, 1995
MI6 - Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, Stephen Dorril, 2000)Prior to World War II, British Intelligence cultivated ties with the Brotherhood through agent Freya Stark, the British adventurer and writer... The Muslim Brotherhood spread throughout the Muslim world and has evolved into something like a Muslim equivalent of the West's Masonic brotherhood...
"According to CIA agent Miles Copeland, the Americans began looking for a Muslim Billy Graham around 1955... When finding or creating a Muslim Billy Graham proved elusive, the CIA began to cooperate with the Muslim Brotherhood, the Muslim mass organization founded in Egypt but with followers throughout the Arab Middle East... This signalled the beginning of an alliance between the traditional regimes and mass Islamic movements against Nasser and other secular forces." (Blum)
The most noteworthy success of the Islamic movement during this time was of course the overthrow of the Shah of Iran and the installation of the Ayatollah Khomeini as the Islamic dictator. British Intelligence had used their contacts with Iran's mullahs and ayatollahs to help overthrow Mossadegh and install the Shah back in 1953, and these contacts were maintained and used again to overthrow the Shah when his regime fell out of favor.
The Establishment history of Iran's Islamic Revolution is that Khomeini's revolt was spontaneous and populist, and that it overthrew a repressive dictatorship that was hated by the people but supported wholeheartedly by the United States. It is true that the Shah's government was not a democracy and that his secret service, trained by the CIA, was one of the most effective intelligence organizations in the world.
But what is not reported is that prior to the British-sponsored massive public relations campaign on behalf of the Ayatollah the government of the Shah was loved by the vast majority of the population.
After taking over from Mossadegh the Shah began to push forward a number of nationalist policies that increased his popularity at home but, in some cases, worried the Anglo-American Establishment.
First, he signed petroleum agreements with ENI, the Italian oil company.
Then in 1963 he pushed forward on a series of popular reforms that became known as the White Revolution.
The Shah evolved into a nationalist whose path paralleled that of Nasser far too much for the Establishment's liking:
- He bought land from the upper classes and, along with the crown's own land, sold it back cheaply to tenant farmers, allowing over one a half million people to become land owners and ending the old feudal system.
- He allowed women the right to vote, and brought an end to the wearing of the veil, which were "Westernizing" moves unwelcomed by the religious sector.
- He pushed forward on a $90 billion nuclear power program.
- He moved to shut down the lucrative opium industry that had been created during the days of British Empire control that had been running for a hundred years....
The attack on the Shah's government came through the Muslim Brotherhood and through the mullahs and ayatollahs of Iran, supported and manipulated by British Intelligence...
Dr. John Coleman, a former British Intelligence agent... states in his report on Iran's Islamic Revolution (11) that the Muslim Brotherhood was created by "the great names of British Middle East intelligence" ...and that their mission was to "keep the Middle East backward so that its natural resource, oil, could continue to be looted..."
Dr. Coleman writes that in 1980 the broadcasts of Radio Free Iran divided the enemies of the Shah into four categories: 1. Iranian politicians bought by the Israeli Shin Bet, 2. The CIA's network of agents, 3. The feudal landowners, 4. The Freemasons and the Muslim Brotherhood (viewed as the same enemy).
In his report Dr. Coleman writes that in Iran, "At one time there was even a joke about the mullahs being stamped 'made in Britain.'" When the Shah introduced his plan for modernization in 1963 the Ayatollah Khomeini emerged as the leader of the religious opposition. Up until his exile from Iran in 1964, Khomeini was based at the religious city of Qom. Dr. Coleman relates that Radio Free Iran claimed that while at Qom Khomeini received a "monthly stipend from the British, and he is in constant contact with his masters, the British."
On February 1st, 1979, two weeks after the Shah's departure, Khomeini made a triumphant return to Iran. The BBC's John Simpson was on the plane that carried him back from Paris. aangirfan: BBC links to MI6?